Developing a simple 2D game with OpenGL (Ball with Bat) – tutorial 9


Introduction

Game development is really interesting work, actually when you look at a computer game and the AI implemented in it and its graphics and complexity, you then feel it is impossible to build such type of games. But if you know that all these games are depending on graphics libraries which made developing games very easy task, you will be interested in designing and developing games. We are going to prove that here by developing a simple 2D game depending on OpenGL library, we will introduce the concept of scene rendering and object collision, and also we will show how to write a text on the screen to get the score of the player. Finally we will show how to use the keyboard and mouse to interact with the game.

The game basics:

When you develop a game you have to fully understand how the game is played, so you can implement its logic. Our game is a simple ball with bat game. The bat will be moved according to the movement of the mouse. And the ball will move randomly in the created window. When the ball hits the right, left, or top wall – we will refer to the window border as a wall – it will return back. When it hits the bottom wall it will not only return back but it will increase the score of the computer, but if the player can hold it by the bat, his score will be increased. Let us take a look at the interface of the game. The interface of the game is depicted in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 The interface of our game, the square in the middle represents the ball and the rectangle at the bottom represents the bat.

The window contains two counters, the first is PC: it is for the computer, it increases only if the ball hits the bottom border of the window (bottom wall). Player: it is a counter increases only if the ball hits your bat (the bat is represented by the rectangle at the bottom of the screen).

The game implementation

We will show step by step how to implement the game. First of all the concept of motion in OpenGL should be clear, the motion is done by drawing and looping. In every loop, the position of the object is adjusted so you fell it is moving. Motion in OpenGL has the same concept as the Cartoon films, every cycle the drawing is adjusted little bit and then all the images are displayed together which results in “moving” characters.

Drawing the window

The window in OpenGL is implemented simply by the following code segment

 
glutInit(&argc, argv); 
glutInitDisplayMode ( GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGB); 
glutInitWindowSize (795, 500); 
glutInitWindowPosition (0, 0); 
glutCreateWindow ("Osama Hosam's simple OpenGL game");

First, the window initialization is done, and the color mode is set to RGB. Then a size of the window is defined as 795 for width and 500 for the height. Then the position of the window will be at 0,0 which is in the upper left corner of the computer screen. Finally a title is assigned to the window; this title will appear in the title bar or our window.

Drawing the Ball and the Bat and Displaying the Score Text

As we said the ball will be represented by a rectangle. For that we will define a new structure called RECTA, which is implemented by defining the left, top, right, and bottom coordinates. We are going to define three variables of this structure to be used as Ball, Wall, and Bat respectively

 
struct RECTA { float left,top,right,bottom; }; 
RECTA ball={100,100,120,120}; 
RECTA wall; 
RECTA player_1 ={0,490,40,500};

Then we will use the DrawRectangle function to draw the RECTA instances on OpenGL window.

 
void DrawRectangle(RECTA rect) 
{ 
 glBegin(GL_QUADS); 
 glVertex2f(rect.left,rect.bottom); 
 //Left - Bottom 
 glVertex2f(rect.right,rect.bottom); 
 glVertex2f(rect.right,rect.top); 
 glVertex2f(rect.left,rect.top); 
 glEnd(); 
}

The rectangle is drawn in OpenGL by using its corners coordinates. We start by the left-bottom corner and rotating counter-clockwise. glBegin(GL_QUADS) and glEnd() functions will encapsulate the rectangle coordinates. For the text, we need to write two words PC: (the score of the computer) Player: (The score of the player or the user). To do that we have implemented a function called drawText, it is shown in the following code segment

 
void drawText(char*string,int x,int y) 
{ 
 char *c; 
 glPushMatrix(); 
 glTranslatef(x, y,0); 
 glScalef(0.1,-0.1,1); 
 for (c=string; *c != '\0'; c++) 
 { 
  glutStrokeCharacter(GLUT_STROKE_ROMAN , *c); 
 } 
 glPopMatrix(); 
}

The function draws a string of type char* at position x,y. First we need to Push the matrix into the stack – so the next functions will not be affected by previous processing – then we translate the OpenGL cursor to position x, y then we scale the text to control its size (you are free to play with the values in glScalef function and see the effect of each value). Then we loop through the string (char* array) and draw every character separately by using the function glutStrokeCharacter. GLUT_STROKE_ROMAN is the name of the used font. Finally we pop the matrix from the stack so the previous settings are returned back.

Moving the Ball and the Bat

As we said before, the motion of the Ball (the square) is done by adjusting the square position in each loop. The Ball has a speed (this will be defined by a Timer Function together with the length of the Ball movement steps- in our program we call this steps “delta”). For the timer function it always contains a code that will be executed in a regular basis every specified period of time (every 1 millisecond in our program). Our timer function is depicted in the following code segment

 
static float Xspeed=1,Yspeed=1; 
static float delta=1; 
void Timer(int v) 
{ 
 ball.left+=Xspeed; 
 ball.right+=Xspeed; 
 ball.top+=Yspeed; 
 ball.bottom+=Yspeed; 
 glutTimerFunc(1,Timer,1); 
}

We have defined two global variables Xspeed and Yspeed, which has the value of delta=1. This can be shown graphically in Fig. 2. The value of delta will be changed (+1/-1) according to the collision of the ball with the walls. If the ball hits the right wall Xspeed will be –delta (this will make the ball return back), if the ball hits the left wall the Xspeed will be changed to delta and so on. For Yspeed also if the ball hits the top wall it will be equal delta, however if it hits the bottom wall or the bat, it will be –delta. The most important point here is that the Xspeed, Yspead will be used to increase the position of the ball, which was clearly done in the Timer function (refer to the above code segment). For changing the values of Xspeed and Yspeed, it is shown in the following code segment

CThreeMaxLoader contains the following function which responsible for loading the 3DS file:

 
if(Test_Ball_Wall(ball,wall)== FROM_RIGHT) 
 Xspeed=-delta; 
if(Test_Ball_Wall(ball,wall)== FROM_LEFT) 
 Xspeed=delta; 
if(Test_Ball_Wall(ball,wall)== FROM_TOP) 
 Yspeed=delta; 
if(Test_Ball_Wall(ball,wall)== FROM_BOTTOM) 
{ 
 Yspeed=-delta; 
 pcResult +=1; 
}

In the above code segment, the variable pcResult holds the counter of the computer score. Also we noticed the existence of a new function called Test_Ball_Wall(ball,wall). This function is used to detect the collision between the ball and the walls. The collision detection will be explained in the next section.

Fig. 2 The movement of the ball

Moving the bat will be done by moving the mouse cursor, when the mouse cursor is moved, only the x coordinate of the bat will be changed, the movement of the bat is shown in the following code segment

 
static mouse_x=0; 
void MouseMotion(int x,int y) 
{ 
 mouse_x=x; 
}

We have defined a global variable called mouse_x. it will be used in drawing the bat when we render the whole scene. You can stop the game by pressing the Esc. key from the keyboard this is programmed as follow

 
void keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y) 
{ 
  switch (key) 
  { 
    case 27: 
     exit(0); 
     break; 
  } 
}

Ball collision detection

As we described in the previous section, when the ball hits the wall it will reflect back. The detection of the collision between the ball and wall (taking an example the right wall) is done simply by comparing the right coordinate of the wall with the ball’s right coordinate, the collision will occur if they are the same or the ball’s right is greater. For the bat/ball collision is done by comparing the top of the bat with the bottom of the ball. A collision occurs if they are the same or the balls bottom is greater and the x-coordinate lie inside the bat’s x coordinates. The following code shows the above procedure

 
int Test_Ball_Wall(RECTA ball , RECTA wall) 
{ 
 if(ball.right >=wall.right) 
  return FROM_RIGHT; 
 if(ball.left <=wall.left) 
  return FROM_LEFT; 
 if(ball.top <=wall.top) 
  return FROM_TOP; 
 if(ball.bottom >=wall.bottom) 
  return FROM_BOTTOM; 
 else 
  return 0 ; 
} 
bool Test_Ball_Player(RECTA ball,RECTA player) 
{ 
 if(ball.bottom >= player.top && ball.left>= player.left && ball.right <=player.right ) 
 { 
  playerResult++; 
  return true; 
 } 
 return false; 
}

As we can expect playerResult is a global variable holds the score of the player.

Putting all things together

We are going to show how the above code will be used in rendering the whole scene of the game. First take a look at the Render function

 
void Render() 
{ 
 glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT ); 
 glLoadIdentity(); 
 sprintf(string,"PC : %d ",pcResult); 
 drawText(string,10,80); 
 sprintf(string,"Player : %d ",playerResult); 
 drawText(string,10,120); 
 wall.left=wall.top=0; 
 wall.right=WINDOW_WIDTH; 
 wall.bottom=WINDOW_HEIGHT; 
 DrawRectangle(ball); 
 if(Test_Ball_Wall(ball,wall)== FROM_RIGHT) 
  Xspeed=-delta; 
 if(Test_Ball_Wall(ball,wall)== FROM_LEFT) 
  Xspeed=delta; 
 if(Test_Ball_Wall(ball,wall)== FROM_TOP) 
  Yspeed=delta; 
 if(Test_Ball_Wall(ball,wall)== FROM_BOTTOM) 
 { 
  Yspeed=-delta; 
  pcResult +=1; 
 } 
 DrawRectangle(player_1); 
 player_1.left=mouse_x-20; 
 player_1.right=mouse_x+40; 
 if(Test_Ball_Player(ball,player_1)==true) 
  Yspeed=-delta; 
 glutSwapBuffers(); 
}

As we mentioned before the Render function will run every OpenGL loop. So, first we need to clear and load the identity matrix to the window, and then we will use the drawText function to draw the text for the PC and Player scores. Then we define the walls coordinates (it will have the same size as the created OpenGL window) and then draw the ball. Then we detect the collision between the ball and the wall and between the ball and the bat, and accordingly increase the scores of the PC and the player. Finally we move the player according to the movement of the mouse.

The Game’s Source Code

To download a sample code of the above tutorial click here. You need to install Visual C++ 6 and Install the OpenGL and GLUT libraries to be able to run the source code.